RRIAN | Servicios INIS |  Meetings on Atomic Energy  |  Internet Directory of Nuclear Resources  |  Nuclear Energy Knowledge Portal


Coordinación y edición - CNEN/CIN (Brasil) con la colaboración de los países de la RRIAN - Colaborador especial - Máximo Rudelli (Argentina)

Año 2 - Nº 15 - Octubre 2007
Sobre el Web Nuclear  |  Números Anteriores   |  Contáctenos



Application of Radioimmunoassay in Improving the Reproductive Management of Smallholder Dairy Cattle  
IAEA TECDOC Series No.  1571, September 2007, 99

This publication was produced under an IAEA Technical Cooperation Project entitled “Increasing and Improving Milk and Meat Production”, that was implemented within the framework of the AFRA programme, with technical support of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture. It details the results obtained by project counterparts from surveys taken and experiments performed in monitoring the reproductive performance of cattle and application of artificial

insemination (AI) in the counterparts' respective countries. The publication is intended for livestock specialists involved in the management of reproductive services for cattle farmers in Africa, including those in ministries of agriculture/livestock, departments of livestock and veterinary services, and AI centres, and public and private veterinarians.

Extraído de:

Population Monitoring in Radiation Emergencies: A Guide for State and Local Public Health Planners 
CDC - Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, August 2007, 75 p.

Population monitoring is the process of identifying, screening, and monitoring people for exposure to radiation or contamination from radioactive materials. This planners' guide presents an introduction to population monitoring in radiation emergencies for public health officials and emergency preparedness planners at the state and local levels. It describes how to plan for population monitoring and provides practical

suggestions to address the many challenges it presents when a large population is potentially impacted.

Extraído de: http://emergency.cdc.gov/radiation/pdf/population-monitoring-guide.pdf

Considerations to Launch a Nuclear Power Programme
IAEA, 2007, 25 p.

Two of the major concerns facing humanity are the pressing need for development in many parts of the world and the importance of ensuring an effective system of international security. These two concerns — development and security — are interlinked. Energy is essential for development. Nearly every aspect of development — from reducing poverty and raising living standards to improving health care, and industrial and

agricultural productivity — requires reliable access to modern energy sources. In this context, it is important to consider the global energy imbalance: today, 1.6 billion people are without access to electricity, and 2.4 billion rely on traditional biomass for cooking and heating because they have no access to modern fuels. Current forecasts suggest the world will see an increase in global energy consumption of over 50% by 2030, with 70% of this growth in demand expected to come from developing countries. Nuclear energy can play a role in providing increased access to affordable energy in many parts of the world. States may have different reasons for considering nuclear power to achieve their national energy needs, such as: a lack of available indigenous energy resources, the desire to reduce dependence upon imported energy, the need to increase the diversity of energy resources and/or the mitigation of carbon emission increases. By its nature a nuclear power programme involves issues associated with nuclear material, ionizing radiation and the related challenges. This is a major undertaking requiring careful planning, preparation and investment in a sustainable infrastructure that provides legal, regulatory, technological, human and industrial support to ensure that the nuclear material is used exclusively for peaceful purposes and in a safe and secure manner.

Extraído de: http://www.iaea.org/NuclearPower/Downloads/Launch_NPP/07-11471_Launch_NPP.pdf

Research and development with regard to severe accidents in pressurised water reactors: Summary and outlook
IRSN - Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire, 04/01/07, 218 p.

This document reviews the current state of research on severe accidents in France and other countries. It aims to provide an objective vision, and one that's as exhaustive as possible, for this innovative field of research. It will help in identifying R&D requirements and categorising them hierarchically. Obviously, the resulting prioritisation must be completed by a rigorous examination of needs in terms of safety analyses for various

risks and physical phenomena, especially in relation to Level 2 Probabilistic Safety Assessments. PSA-2 should be sufficiently advanced so as not to obscure physical phenomena that, if not properly understood, might result in substantial uncertainty. It should be noted that neither the safety analyses nor PSA-2 are presented in this document.
This report describes the physical phenomena liable to occur during a severe accident, in the reactor vessel and the containment. It presents accident sequences and methods for limiting impact. The corresponding scenarios are detailed in Chapter 2. Chapter 3 deals with in-vessel accident progression, examining core degradation (3.1), corium behaviour in the lower head (3.2), vessel rupture (3.3) and high-pressure core meltdown (3.4). Chapter 4 focuses on phenomena liable to induce early containment failure, namely direct containment heating (4.1), hydrogen risk (4.2) and steam explosions (4.3). The phenomenon that could lead to a late containment failure, namely molten coreconcrete interaction, is discussed in Chapter 5. Chapter 6 focuses on problems related to in-vessel and ex-vessel corium retention and cooling, namely in-vessel retention by flooding the primary circuit or the reactor pit (6.1), cooling of the corium under water during the corium-concrete interaction (6.2), corium spreading (6.3) and ex-vessel core catchers (6.4). Chapter 7 relates to the release and transport of fission products (FP), addressing the themes of in-vessel FP release (7.1) and ex-vessel FP release (7.3), FP transport in the primary and the secondary circuit (7.2), aerosol behaviour in the containment (7.4) and FP chemistry (7.5). Finally, Chapter 8 presents a review of development and validation efforts for the main severe accident codes: ASTEC, MAAP and MELCOR.
In Chapters 3—7, for each of the theme areas, the phenomena involved are reviewed. The major relevant experiments are then briefly described, including recent, ongoing and future projects. The key models and specific codes (except for integral codes) used to simulate the phenomena in question are also discussed. Finally, the state of current knowledge is reviewed and an outlook for the future is presented, especially regarding experimental programmes and the development of modelling tools.

Extraído de: http://net-science.irsn.org/net-science/liblocal/docs/docs_DSR/rapport_RetD_AG_VA.pdf

Manual Para Primeros Actuantes Ante Emergencias Radiológicas
OIEA, Emergency Preparedness and Response, agosto de 2007, 104 p.

La presente publicación tiene el objetivo es proporcionar orientación práctica a quienes apliquen las medidas de respuesta a una emergencia radiológica durante las primeras horas (denominados en adelante “primeros actuantes”) y a los funcionarios nacionales que apoyen estas medidas iniciales. En ella se formulan orientaciones a modo de guías de acción, instrucciones y datos complementarios que puede aplicar

fácilmente un Estado con el fin de crear capacidad básica para dar respuesta a una emergencia radiológica. Estas orientaciones deben adaptarse para que se ajusten a las disposiciones normativas, el idioma, la
terminología, el concepto de operación y las capacidades de los Estados.

Extraído de: http://www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/publications/PDF/EPR_Frist Responder_S_web.pdf


Risk Management of Knowledge Loss in Nuclear Industry Organizations 
IAEA, 2006, 31 p.

Maintaining nuclear competencies in the nuclear industry and nuclear regulatory authorities will be one of the most critical challenges in the near future. As many nuclear experts around the world are retiring, they are taking with them a substantial amount of knowledge and corporate memory. The loss of such employees who hold knowledge critical to both operations and safety poses a clear internal threat to the safe and reliable operation of nuclear facilities. This technical report is intended for senior and middle level managers of nuclear industry

operating organizations and provides practical information on knowledge loss risk management. The information provided in this report is based upon actual experiences of Member State operating organizations and is intended to increase awareness of the need to develop a strategic approach and action plans to address the potential loss of critical knowledge and skills; to provide processes and in conducting risk assessments to determine the potential for loss of critical knowledge caused by the loss of experienced workers; and to enable nuclear organizations to utilize this knowledge to improve the skill and competence of new and existing workers.

Extraído de: http://www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/publications/PDF/Pub1248_web.pdf

Challenges Faced by Technical and Scientific Support Organizations in Enhancing Nuclear Safety Proceedings of an International Conference held in Aix-en-Provence, 23-27 IAEA, Proceedings Series, April 2007, 310 p.

Technical and scientific support organizations (TSOs) are playing an increasingly important role in supporting national regulatory bodies and the nuclear industry by providing the technical and scientific expertise necessary to make optimum safety decisions. The aim of this conference was to address the challenges TSOs face in providing this support. The objective was also to provide the opportunity for TSOs from different

countries and other organizations and experts to discuss and develop a common understanding of the opportunities, responsibilities and needs of TSOs; to explore appropriate approaches to addressing current and expected challenges in nuclear and radiation safety; and to discuss the roles, functions and value of TSOs. These proceedings include a summary, the opening speeches, the invited papers, and the conclusions and summary of the conference by the President. The accompanying CD-ROM contains the unedited contributed papers and the presentations that were submitted with some of the invited papers.

Extraído de: http://www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/publications/PDF/Pub1301_web.pdf

Operating Experience with Nuclear Power Stations in Member States in 2006
IAEA, August 2007, 1100 p.

This edition is the thirty-eighth report in the IAEA’s series of annual reports on operating experience with nuclear power stations in Member States. The first publication was issued in 1970. It is a direct output from the IAEA’s Power Reactor Information System (PRIS). It contains information on electricity production and overall performance of individual plants during 2006. In addition to annual information, the report contains a historical summary of performance during the lifetime of

individual plants and figures illustrating worldwide performance of the nuclear industry. This CD-ROM provides enhanced features for data search and analysis. 

Extraído de:  http://www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/publications/PDF/Pub1303_web.pdf

Identification of Radioactive Sources and Devices   IAEA Nuclear Security Series No.  5 , 2007, 138 p.

This manual has been produced as part of the IAEA’s Action Plan for the Safety of Radiation Sources and Security of Radioactive Material. It is intended to: assist in the recognition and identification of objects thought to be radioactive devices, sources and transport packages; provide instruction on what to do and how to obtain further help; enhance awareness of the existence of radioactive devices, sources and transport packages; and provide information on the International

Catalogue of Sealed Radioactive Sources and Devices through regulatory authorities in IAEA Member States. It will also help in identifying sources for events that are reported for inclusion in the IAEA’s Illicit Trafficking Database. 

Extraído de: http://www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/publications/PDF/Pub1278_web.pdf

Radiation Protection - Creating Capacity, Legislation & Regulation, Control of Exposure, and Emergency Preparedness, through Technical Cooperation
IAEA, 2007, 12 p.

This brochure is an overview of the radiation protection programme and is not meant to be exhaustive. It is aimed at those who control the funding for or participation in the programme and at those who have not yet joined the programme. It shows the main thrust of the programme, the five Thematic Safety Areas, and what it offers in return for contributing funds and expert services, or both, to this

programme. It also outlines why an organization that is involved in the use of sources of ionizing radiation would need to be a part of this programme.

Extraído de: http://www-tc.iaea.org/tcweb/publications/otherpublications/radiation_protection.pdf