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Coordinación y edición - CNEN/CIN (Brasil) con la colaboración de los países de la RRIAN - Colaborador especial - Máximo Rudelli (Argentina)

Año 2 - Nº 20 - Marzo 2008
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Meeting the Energy Challenge - A White Paper on Nuclear Power
Department for Business, Enterprise & Regulatory Reform (UK), January 2008, 192 p.

This White Paper sets out the decision we have taken in response to the consultation on nuclear power. It also examines the key concerns that emerged through the different strands of our consultation: we identify these in the analysis of responses to our consultation1. Further, it explains how we have addressed these issues in reaching our conclusion on nuclear power.

Extraído de: http://nuclearpower2007.direct.gov.uk/docs/WhitePaper.pdf

Meeting the Energy Challenge - The Future of Nuclear Power:
Analysis of Consultation Responses
Department for Business, Enterprise & Regulatory Reform (UK), January 2008, 294 p.

The consultation on the Future of Nuclear Power sought views from a wide range of different people, groups and organisations. The consultation responses, resulting from a number of different consultative processes, have been analysed separately by consultants contracted by the Department for Business, Enterprise and Regulatory Reform (BERR). This document brings together these reports and also explains the consultation

process in more detail. This report is therefore broken down into four parts: Part One: An overview of the consultation process;
Part Two: Report by Dialogue by Design: Analysis of the written responses to the public consultation; Part Three: Report by Opinion Leader: Analysis of the findings from the deliberative events with members of the public; Part Four: Report by Henley Centre Headlight Vision: Analysis of outputs from the Nuclear Consultation Stakeholder Meetings
This analysis document should be read alongside the formal Government response to the consultation which is the White Paper on Nuclear Power URN 08/525.

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Impact Assessment of The Government's White Paper on Nuclear Power
Department for Business, Enterprise & Regulatory Reform (UK), January 2008, 19 p.

Trends in Radiopharmaceuticals (ISTR-2005)
Proceedings of an International Symposium held in Vienna, 14–18 November 2005 (2 Volumes) 
IAEA Proceedings Series, 2008, 408 p.

The growth of nuclear medicine depends on advances in the development and discovery of radiopharmaceuticals as well as in the improvement of instrumentation. This international symposium was organized in order to provide scientists and professionals working in the field of radiopharmaceuticals and related sciences an opportunity to present their key research to an international audience. The symposium covered

developments across the entire spectrum of radiopharmaceuticals chemistry, including: radionuclide production, radiochemical processing, manufacturing and quality control of radiopharmaceuticals, latest advances in radiopharmaceuticals research and regulatory aspects. The invited papers and the oral representations are published in this book, and the papers presented in the poster session are compiled in CD format and attached at the back of the proceedings.

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Carbon-Free and Nuclear-Free: A Roadmap for U.S. Energy Policy
Institute for Energy and Environmental Research - IERR, September 2007, 290 p.

A three-fold global energy crisis has emerged since the 1970s; it is now acute on all three fronts:  Climate disruption: Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions due to fossil fuel combustion are the main anthropogenic cause of severe climate disruption, whose continuation portends grievous, irreparable harm to the global economy, society, and current ecosystems;
Insecurity of oil supply: Rapid increases in global oil

consumption and conflict in and about oil exporting regions make prices volatile and supplies insecure; 3. Nuclear proliferation: Non-proliferation of nuclear weapons is being undermined in part by the spread of commercial nuclear power technology, which is being put forth as a major solution for reducing CO2 emissions.
The necessity for drastic action to reduce CO2 emissions is now widely recognized. After a decade of global division, the necessity for drastic action to reduce CO2 emissions is now widely recognized, including in the United States, as indicated by the April 2007 opinion by the U.S. Supreme Court3 that CO2 is a pollutant and by the plethora of bills in the U.S. Congress. Many of the solutions offered would point the United States in the right direction, by recognizing and codifying into law and regulations the need to reduce CO2 emissions. But much more will be needed. Moreover, most of the solutions being offered are likely to be inadequate to the task and some, such as the expansion of nuclear power or the widespread use of food crops for making fuel, are likely to compound the world’s social, political, and security ills. Some, like production of biofuels from Indonesian palm oil, may even aggravate the emissions of CO2.
Our report, of which this is a summary, examines the technical and economic feasibility of achieving a U.S. economy with zero-CO2 emissions without nuclear power. This is interpreted as an elimination of all but a few percent of CO2 emissions or complete elimination with the possibility of removing from the atmosphere some CO2 that has already been emitted. We set out to answer three questions: 1) Is it possible to physically eliminate CO2 emissions from the U.S. energy sector without resort to nuclear power, which has serious security and other vulnerabilities? 2) Is a zero-CO2 economy possible without purchasing offsets from other countries – that is, without purchasing from other countries the right to continue emitting CO2 in the United States? 3) Is it possible to accomplish the above at reasonable cost?

Extraído de: http://www.ieer.org/carbonfree/summary.pdf
Executive Summary - http://www.ieer.org/carbonfree/summary.pdf


Behind the screen:  Breast screening uptake and radiotherapy waiting times in London
Health and Public Services Committee (UK), March 2008, 39 p.

More than a third of women in London who are invited to be screened for breast cancer are failing to take up the offer, our report found. London has the lowest uptake of breast cancer screening in the country – 13 percent below the national average of 75 percent. The report shows large disparities in the uptake of screening across London boroughs. Havering and Bexley have the highest uptake, while Westminster, Kensington & Chelsea, and Tower Hamlets have the lowest.

The report recommends a London-wide call and recall service, which offers appointments to women outside working hours and at a location of their choice. It calls for NHS London to sponsor an incentive scheme to encourage GPs to promote the screening programme using an electronic flagging and letter system. Other recommendations include:
All London PCTs should carry out audits of their populations in relation to breast cancer screening and radiotherapy.
The Department of Health should assess the practicalities of implementing a three year rolling media campaign in London targeting risk groups. It should also require all Screening Programmes to send letters to women over the screening age range every three years reminding them they are entitled to screening appointments.
NHS London must lead the capital’s five cancer networks to set up a pan-London coordination of radiotherapy treatment services in line with the Cancer Reform Strategy.

Extraído de:http://www.london.gov.uk/assembly/reports/health.jsp#screen

Nuclear Security: Action May Be Needed to Reassess the Security of NRC-Licensed Research Reactors
U.S. Government Accountability Office - GAO, January 2008, 47 p.

There are 37 research reactors in the United States, mostly located on college campuses. Of these, 33 reactors are licensed and regulated by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Four are operated by the Department of Energy (DOE) and are located at three national laboratories. Although less powerful than commercial nuclear power reactors, research reactors may still be attractive targets for terrorists. As requested, GAO examined the (1) basis on which DOE and NRC established the security and emergency response requirements for DOE and NRC-licensed research reactors and (2) progress that the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) has made in converting U.S. research reactors that use highly enriched uranium (HEU) to low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel.
This report summarizes the findings of GAO’s classified report on the security of research reactors (GAO-08-156C).

Extraído de:http://www.gao.gov/highlights/d08403high.pdf

La radiación, la gente y el ambiente
Fundación Trabajo, Educación, Ambiente (Argentina), 2007, 144 p.

La presente publicación tiene como propósito poner al alcance de la sociedad información básica sobre la energía nuclear, de manera de poder construir parámetros de normal aceptación sobre esta materia. La publicación contiene un enfoque general sobre la radiación ionizante, sus aplicaciones y efectos, así como también sobre las medidas por introducir para su uso

seguro. A lo largo de sus capítulos, se describen en forma simple los conceptos de radiación y materia, el efecto de las radiaciones, el sistema de protección radiológica, el uso de la radiación en medicina, la contaminación ambiental, las centrales nucleares y la gestión de los desechos radiactivos, entre otros.

Extraído de: http://www.tea.org.ar/La Radiacion la gente y el ambiente.zip

Criterios para el tratamiento paliativo de la metástasis ósea - Aplicaciones clínicas  IAEA TECDOC Series, Febrero de 2008, 66 p.

El manejo de los pacientes con dolores óseos provocados por las metástasis debe basarse en un enfoque multidisciplinario que comprenda el uso de analgésicos, radioterapia, cirugía, quimioterapia, tratamiento hormonal, radioisótopos y bifosfonatos. En la mayoría de los pacientes, la primera opción es la analgesia con fármacos antiinflamatorios no esteroideos (AINEs), para pasar posteriormente a opiáceos más fuertes, a medida que la intensidad del dolor va en aumento. Esos

fármacos producen efectos secundarios indeseables como náuseas, sedación y estreñimiento. Cabe recurrir a la radioterapia externa local o a la cirugía en el caso de enfermedad metastásica localizada y puede estar más indicada la radioterapia hemicorporal en los pacientes en los que la enfermedad se ha extendido a una región del cuerpo. En los pacientes con un cuadro doloroso de diseminación ósea generalizada, los radiofármacos con afinidad por el hueso ofrecen una estrategia de control del dolor muy prometedora.
El propósito de este documento técnico (TECDOC) es servir de guía y de instrumento útil tanto para los investigadores como para los clínicos, no sólo en el campo de la radioterapia oncológica sino también en el de la medicina nuclear. El OIEA ha hecho especial hincapié en el problema de las metástasis óseas dentro del marco de las investigaciones sobre el cáncer. Los proyectos coordinados de investigación recientes han puesto de relieve que se trata de una cuestión importante que debe abordarse a través de ensayos clínicos que se ajusten lo mejor posible a las necesidades de los países en desarrollo.

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Follow-up IAEA Mission in Relation to the Findings and Lessons Learned from the 16 July 2007 Earthquake at Kashiwazaki-Kariwa NPP
IAEA, 26 February 2008, 75 p.

A continuing review of the impact of a strong earthquake that led to the shutdown of the Kashiwazaki-Kariwa nuclear power plant in Japan is likely to influence approaches to the seismic safety of nuclear power plants worldwide, a report by a second IAEA fact finding mission investigating the event said today.
The team confirmed there was no significant damage to the parts of the plant important to safety after its mission in late

January 2008. However, its 68-page findings, published today, said that "no international regulation or experience" is readily available to precisely characterise the effects of the 18 July 2007 earthquake.
"The IAEA is in a position to provide international expertise to apply to the event and in so doing international nuclear power safety standards will benefit," Philippe Jamet, head of the IAEA´s Division of Installation Safety and leader of the mission said today.
The Niigataken Chuetsu-oki earthquake "very significantly exceeded"" the level of seismic activity for which the plant, in the coastal prefecture of Niigata, north-west of Tokyo, was designed, the report said.
The four reactors in operation at the time in the seven unit complex - the world´s largest nuclear power plant - shut down safely and there was a very small radioactive release well below public health and environmental safety limits.
In order to understand the earthquake and to assess the possibility of future earthquakes that may affect the nuclear power plant, the report said, a large amount of "high quality" work has been performed by Japanese experts. They will now have to assemble all the data within a coherent framework to produce an appropriately conservative seismic evaluation, said the report.
The 12-member IAEA-led team of international experts who compiled the report was invited to Japan by the Japanese Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency (NISA). The mission was tasked with focusing on seismic safety, the integrity of the plant and fire safety. The team held meetings with regulators, geologists, seismologists and the operators of the plant, the Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO). It also visited the plant.

Extraído de: http://www.iaea.org/NewsCenter/News/2008/kashiwazaki260208.html

The Measurement, Reporting, and Management of Radiation Dose in CT
Am/erican Association of Physicists in Medicine, January 2008, 34 p.

Since the introduction of helical computed tomography (CT) in the early 1990s, the technology and capabilities of CT scanners have changed tremendously (helical and spiral CT are equivalent technologies; for consistency, the term “helical” will be used throughout). The introduction of dual-slice systems in 1994 and multislice systems in 1998 (four detector arrays along the z-axis) has further accelerated the implementation

of many new clinical applications. The number of slices, or data channels, acquired per axial rotation has increased, with 16- and 64-slice systems now available (as well as models having 2, 6, 8, 10, 32, and 40 slices). Soon even larger detector arrays and axial coverage per rotation (>4 cm) will be commercially available, with results from a 256-slice scanner having already been published. These tremendous strides in technology have resulted in many changes in the clinical use of CT. These include, but are not limited to, increased use of multiphase exams, vascular and cardiac exams, perfusion imaging, and screening exams (primarily the heart, chest, and colon, but also self-referred “wholebody” screening exams). Each of these applications prompts the need for discussion of radiation risk versus medical benefit. In addition, the public press in the United States, following publication by the American Journal of Roentgenology of two articles on risks to pediatric patients from CT, has begun to scrutinize radiation dose levels from all CT examinations. Subsequent reports in the popular media have increased the concern of patients and parents of pediatric patients undergoing medically appropriate CT examinations7. The importance of radiation dose from x-ray CT has been underscored recently by the attention given in the scientific literature to issues of dose and the associated risk. The dose levels imparted in CT exceed those from conventional radiography and fluoroscopy and the use of CT continues to grow, often by 10% to 15% per year. According to 2006 data, approximately 62 million CT examinations were performed in hospitals and outpatient imaging facilities in the United States. Thus, CT will continue to contribute a significant portion of the total collective dose delivered to the public from medical procedures involving ionizing radiation. The rapid evolution of CT technology and the resultant explosion in new clinical applications, including cardiac CT, combined with the significance of CT dose levels, have created a compelling need to teach, understand, and use detailed information regarding CT dose.

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Reforming Nuclear Export Controls: The Future of the Nuclear Suppliers Group
Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, 2007, 150 p.

Reforming Nuclear Export Controls: The Future of the Nuclear Suppliers Group examines the structure and activities of the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG), a body of 45 states committed to applying effective controls on exports of an agreed set of nuclear materials and technologies. The diversion to military programmes of nuclear materials and technologies originally imported for peaceful purposes has played a key role in the known cases of nuclear proliferation. In all of these cases nuclear export controls have failed, and both the European

Union and the G8 have since identified the need to strengthen them. Looking to the future, the report analyses the place of the NSG within the overall effort to prevent nuclear proliferation.

This report asks what kinds of nuclear activity are consistent with the obligations of states parties to the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT). What are the connections and tensions between the 'inalienable right' of non-nuclear weapon states party to the NPT to use nuclear materials and technology for peaceful purposes, and the rules and guidelines of the NSG, which are intended to block access to nuclear material and technologies for military use? The report considers how NSG decision making is potentially affected by the tendency to divide countries into categories of 'good' or 'bad' behaviour based on political criteria, rather than on the record of states under the nuclear non-proliferation regime. These pressing issues are examined via the specific cases of India and Iran.
Finally, Reforming Nuclear Export Controls discusses whether and to what extent other current efforts intended to prevent nuclear proliferation—the Proliferation Security Initiative and the activities of the International Atomic Energy Agency and the UN '1540' Committee—can supplement decision making on export control, or even supplant the role of the NSG.
Extraído de: http://books.sipri.org/product_info?c_product_id=347

U.S. EPR (Evolutionary Power Reactor)
Areva, s. d., 33 p.

Security of energy supply. Long-term stability of energy costs. The need to combat the greenhouse effect and potential global warming. All of these factors argue in favor of greater diversity in energy supplies. Nuclear power has a vital role to play as a safe, economically competitive, reliable and environmentally friendly energy source. As a world expert in energy, AREVA creates and offers solutions to generate, transmit and distribute electricity. AREVA is the largest company in the world comprising the entire nuclear cycle: the front end (Uranium ore mining, conversion and

enrichment, and fuel fabrication), reactor design and construction, reactor services, the back end of the fuel cycle (spent fuel management), and transmission and distribution of electricity.
Utilities can ensure reliable electric service and meet the growing demands for power in their service areas by adding the U.S. EPR to their generation portfolio. The U.S. EPR (Evolutionary Power Reactor) is a large, advanced reactor of the pressurized water reactor (PWR) type offered by AREVA NP to provide the most predictable path for new baseload generation that is cost-effective, safe and environmentally conscious.

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Transparency of Nuclear Regulatory Activities
Workshop Proceedings,Tokyo and Tokai-Mura, Japan, 22-24 May 2007
Nuclear Energy Agency - NEA, 16 November 2007, 316 p.
Cost: EURO 60, US$ 78, £ 43, ¥ 8300

One of the main missions of nuclear regulators is to protect the public, and this cannot be completely achieved without public confidence. The more a regulatory process is transparent, the more such confidence will grow. Despite important cultural differences across countries, a number of common features

characterise media and public expectations regarding any activity with an associated risk.
A common understanding of transparency and main stakeholders' expectations in the field of nuclear safety were identified during this workshop, together with a number of conditions and practices aimed at improving the transparency of nuclear regulatory activities. These conditions and practices are described herein, and will be of particular interest to all those working in the nuclear regulatory field. Their implementation may, however, differ from one country to another depending on national context.

Extraído de: http://www.nea.fr/html/pub/ret.cgi?id=new#6256