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Coordinación y edición - CNEN/CIN (Brasil) con la colaboración de los países de la RRIAN - Colaborador especial - Máximo Rudelli (Argentina)

Año 2 - Nº 23 - Junio 2008
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Bioinitiative: A Rationale for a Biologically-Based Public Exposure Standard for Electromagnetic Fields

The EEA study reviews the histories of a selection of public and environmental hazards, such as asbestos, benzene and PCBs, from the first scientifically based early warnings about potential harm, to subsequent precautionary and preventive measures. Cases on tobacco smoking and lead in petrol are forthcoming. Although the EEA does not have specific expertise in EMF, the case studies of public hazards analysed in the ' Late lessons' publication show that harmful exposures can be widespread before there is both 'convincing' evidence of harm from long-term

exposures, and biological understanding of how that harm is caused. 'There are many examples of the failure to use the precautionary principle in the past, which have resulted in serious and often irreversible damage to health and environments. Appropriate, precautionary and proportionate actions taken now to avoid plausible and potentially serious threats to health from EMF are likely to be seen as prudent and wise from future perspectives. We must remember that precaution is one of the principles of EU environmental policy,' says Professor Jacqueline McGlade, Executive Director of the EEA. Current evidence, although limited, is strong enough to question the scientific basis for the present EMF exposure limits, according to the BioInitiative Working Group

Annual Report 2007
NEA - Nuclear Energy Agency, May 2008, 48 p.

At the end of 2007, a total of 346 reactors were connected to the grid in OECD countries constituting some 83% of the world’s total nuclear electricity generating capacity, and about 23% of the total electricity supply in the OECD area. During 2007, one reactor was restarted in the United States and none were shut down. Construction was initiated on three reactors (one in France and two in the Republic of Korea), and construction resumed on one reactor in the United States. There are signi­ cant differences in nuclear energy policy in OECD countries,

some of which (e.g. Austria, Belgium, Germany, Italy, Spain and Sweden) have of­ cial moratoria or phase-out policies. However, the fact that nuclear power can produce  competitively priced, base-load electricity that is essentially free of greenhouse gas emissions and can enhance security of energy supply has led several governments to conclude that nuclear energy is a necessary part of the energy mix. This is perhaps best exemplied by the October 2007 Resolution of the European Parliament which characterised nuclear energy as “…indispensable if basic energy needs are to be met in Europe in the medium term.” In 2007, plans to increase nuclear capacity gained momentum in several OECD countries.

This publication is also available in French as: Rapport annuel 2007

Extraído de:

Nuclear Power Feasibility
WFEO - World Federation of Engineering Organizations, March 2008, 60 p.

Nuclear power is a proven technology and has the potential to generate virtually limitless energy with no significant greenhouse gas emissions. Nuclear power can become one of the main options to contribute to substantial cuts in global greenhouse gas emissions. Modern development of nuclear power technology and the established framework of international agreements and conventions are responding to the major political, economic and environmental issues -high

capital costs, the risks posed by nuclear waste and accidents, and the proliferation of nuclear weaponry- that until recently hindered the expansion of nuclear power. In response to such prospects, the WFEO Energy Standing Committee set up a Task Group to develop this Report on NUCLEAR POWER FEASIBILITY - 2008. This Report gathers information on the state-of-the-art of nuclear energy technology and its current technical and economic feasibility based on engineering criteria and technological maturity.

Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities: Training and Human Resource Considerations 
IAEA Nuclear Energy Series, 2008, 147 p.

One of the cornerstones of the success of nuclear facility decommissioning is the adequate competence of personnel involved in decommissioning activities. The purpose of this report is to provide methodological guidance for, and specific examples of good practices in, training as an integral part of human resource management for the personnel performing decommissioning activities. The use of the systematic methodology and techniques described in this publication may

be tailored and applied to the development of training for all types of nuclear facilities undergoing decommissioning. Examples of and good practices in other aspects of human resources, such as knowledge preservation, management of the workforce and improvement of human performance, are also covered. The information contained in this publication, and the examples provided in the appendices and enclosed CD-ROM, are representative of the experience of decommissioning of a wide variety of nuclear facilities. Methods and tools presented in the report and used for training, human resource management, knowledge preservation and performance improvement, for successfully carrying out the decommissioning projects, constitute a framework for those who are preparing nuclear facility decommissioning projects of various strategies and magnitudes.

Extraído de: http://www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/publications/PubDetails.asp?pubId=7859


Country Nuclear Power Profiles - 2007 Edition 
IAEA-CNPP/2007/CD, 2008

Extraído de: http://www-pub.iaea.org/mtcd/publications/PubDetails.asp?pubId=7926

Nuclear Power's Role in Generating Electricity
U.S. Congressional Budget Office, May 2008, 46 p.

CBO issued a study today examining possible future private investment in new nuclear power plants. The extent of such investment depends not only on possible charges for carbon dioxide (if the Congress adopts climate change legislation) but also on existing incentives provided for such plants in the Energy Policy Act (EPAct) of 2005. The Energy Information Administration (EIA) projects that demand for electricity in the United States will increase by 20 percent by the end of the next decade. Most of the additional demand would likely be met by

conventional fossil-fuel technologies without the incentives in EPAct or the prospects of a market price on carbon emissions. Carbon dioxide charges of about $45 per metric ton would probably make nuclear generation competitive with conventional fossil fuel technologies as a source of new capacity and could lead utilities to build new nuclear plants that would eventually replace existing coal power plants. At charges below that threshold, conventional gas technology would probably be a more economic source of baseload capacity than coal technology. Below about $5 per metric ton, conventional coal technology would probably be the lowest cost source of new capacity. Uncertainties about future construction costs or natural gas prices could deter investment in nuclear power. In particular, if construction costs for new nuclear power plants proved to be as high as the average cost of nuclear plants built in the 1970s and 1980s (adjusted for inflation), or if natural gas prices fell back to the levels seen in the 1990s, then new nuclear capacity would not be competitive, regardless of the incentives provided by EPAct. Such variations in construction or fuel costs would be less likely to deter investment in new nuclear capacity if investors anticipate a carbon dioxide charge, but those charges would probably have to exceed $80 per metric ton in order for nuclear technology to remain competitive under a scenario with high construction costs and low natural gas prices.

Extraído de: http://cboblog.cbo.gov/?p=92

The Role of Research in a Regulatory Context (RRRC-2)
Workshop Proceedings, Paris, France, 5 December 2007
NEA - Nuclear Energy Agency, February 2008, 136 p.

This workshop enabled the exchange of experience among regulators, research managers and industry on the needs, priorities and foreseeable trends for nuclear safety research in a regulatory context. It also addressed the means that are or can be used for effectively performing such research.
The presentations highlighted priority safety issues, at present and in the near term, for operating plants and new reactors. During the workshop, participants discussed the challenges that

the nuclear community will face in the long term for performing safety evaluations of advanced reactor designs, and explored various avenues for organising the research and infrastructure that will be needed.
These proceedings will be of particular interest to nuclear specialists and research managers wishing to obtain an international perspective of current and foreseeable needs in regulatory-driven nuclear safety research.

Extraído de: http://www.nea.fr/html/pub/ret.cgi?id=new#6377

Rapport annuel de l'ASN sur l'état de la sûreté nucléaire et de la radioprotection en France en 2007.

L’Autorité de sûreté nucléaire (ASN) est une Autorité administrative indépendante créée par la loi Transparence et Sécurité en matière Nucléaire (TSN) du 13 juin 2006. Son démarrage effectif date du 13 novembre 2006 avec l’installation du collège des cinq commissaires qui la dirige. Mais il y a un changement essentiel apporté par la loi TSN : il concerne le statut, la légitimité et l’indépendance que cette loi confère à l’Autorité de sûreté nucléaire. Le statut, la légitimité et

l’indépendance sont incarnés dans le collège cinq commissaires dont les décisions tout au long de l’année 2007 témoignent de la nouvelle dimension de l’ASN.

Criteria for Palliation of Bone Metastases — Clinical Applications 
IAEA TECDOC CD Series No.  1549  Spanish

Bone metastases are one of the complications that may arise for cancer patients. Although the management of patients with metastatic bone pain must be a multidisciplinary approach, which includes aspects such as analgesia and hormone treatment, the focus of this publication is irradiation for patients

with metastatic bone pain. This publication is a guide for specialists in clinical oncology and should help to improve the clinical management of metastatic bone pain patients treated with radiotherapy and radionuclide therapy.

Extraído de:http://www-pub.iaea.org/mtcd/publications/PubDetails.asp?pubId=7856