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Año 1 - Nº 2 - Septiembre  2006

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Spent Fuel Management Options for Research Reactors in Latin America
IAEA TECDOC Series No. 1508, June 2006, 88 p.

Research reactors operate in many IAEA Member States 
for radioisotope production, fundamental research in physics and biology, materials irradiation, education and training. This publication arises from an IAEA Technical Cooperation Regional Project developed by Latin American experts on research reactor spent fuel management. The publication describes technically feasible options available for 

management of spent fuel from research reactors in the participating Member States (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Peru and Mexico) and these options are presented within the context of the economic considerations of the countries in question.

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The Health Protection Agency Radiation Protection Division Passive Survey Instrument
Health Protection Agency, UK, August 2006, 14 p.

Aircraft crew and frequent flyers are exposed to elevated levels of cosmic radiation of galactic and solar origin and secondary radiation produced in the atmosphere, the aircraft structure and its contents. Following recommendations from the International Commission on Radiological Protection, the European Union (EU) introduced a revised Basic Safety Standards Directive which included exposure to 

natural sources of ionising radiation, including cosmic radiation, as occupational exposure. The revised Directive has been incorporated into laws and regulations in the EU member states. Where the assessment of the occupational exposure of aircraft crew is necessary, the preferred approach to monitoring is by the recording of staff flying times and calculated route doses. However there is a requirement to validate calculations periodically by measurement.

The Radiation Protection Division of the HPA has developed a passive survey instrument to make these measurements. The instrument consists of a box containing 36 etched track detectors and 30 thermoluminescence dosemeters (TLDs), and 2 electronic personal dosemeters (EPDs) to record the time profile of the radiation field. Two boxes are prepared for each measurement, one as a background control. The measurement approach adopted is to determine separately the non-neutron component and the neutron component, which includes neutron-like dose equivalent contribution by high-energy protons. The 15% determination limit (that is the dose which can be determined with a 15% precision) is 100 μSv for the estimation of total ambient dose equivalent. This means that, in general, several return flights are required to make a measurement of acceptable precision.

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Energy, Electricity and Nuclear Power Estimates for the Period up to 2030 July 2006
IAEA Reference Data Series No. 1, 2006, 53 p.

This annual publication contains estimates of energy, electricity and nuclear power trends up to the year 2030, using a variety of sources, such as the IAEA's Power Reactor Information System and data prepared by the United Nations.

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Review of Events Involving the Transport of Radioactive Materials in the UK, from 1958 to 2004, and their Radiological Consequences
Health Protection Agency, UK, July 2006, 46 p.

Radioactive materials are widely used in hospitals, industry and research. It is necessary for these materials to be transported from suppliers to customers, and for some radioactive wastes to be returned from customers to suppliers or to waste facilities. All these materials are normally transported by road. Radioactive materials associated with the nuclear industry are mainly

moved by rail. Also, exports and imports of radioactive materials are made by sea and air. During these shipments events, or accidents and incidents, can occur. Records of these events are collated and held on the Radioactive Material Transport Event Database (RAMTED). The database contains information on over 800 events that occurred during the period 1958 to 2004. In this study these events were reviewed to examine trends and radiological consequences. The most serious radiological consequences occurred as a result of transporting improperly packaged industrial radiography sources. However, these events are historical, as there has not been such an occurrence for two decades. The analysis of the information in the database provides an overview of the types of events that have featured throughout the period covered. 

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Stakeholders and Radiological Protection: Lessons from Chernobyl 20 Years After 
Nuclear Energy Agency, 2006, 88 p.

The present report, published 20 years after the accident at Chernobyl builds on, amongst other things, the lessons lernt from the ETHOS project and th Co-operation for Rehabilitation (CORE) Programme. It describes how radiation prtotection has been adapted to meet the needs of people still affected by the accident or, in some cases, the lessons learnt from this. The report strives to demonstrate how a technical discipline, such as 

radiation protection, can adjust to be more effective in meeting the needs od ordinary peopleforced to live in extraordinary circumstances. As such, this report goes beyond supporting the work of the Committee and will also be stimulating reading for anyone with the interest in planning for emergences involving widespread contamination and their aftermath.

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Monitoring for Radioactive Material in International Mail Transported by Public Postal Operators Technical Guidance
IAEA, 2006, 39 p.

The illegal transport of conventional explosives and biological material has been observed in public mail and could lead to serious health hazards. In response to Member States' requests to establish guidance for detecting the movement of radioactive material in international mail, the IAEA and the Universal Postal Union (UPU) undertook a joint effort 

to prepare this publication. It considers how radioactive materials in international mail might be detected, how best to monitor for these materials in mail facilities and how to respond appropriately. This publication brings together a concise but comprehensive description of the various techniques and equipment used to detect and control radioactive material during mail processing.

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UK - The Energy Challenge – Energy Review Report 2006
UK Department of Trade and Industry, 11 July 2006, 218 p. Including supporting documentation.

This work aims to put us in a position to meet the two major long-term challenges in UK energy policy: 1) we need to tackle climate change by reducing carbon dioxide emissions; and 2) we need to deliver secure, clean energy at affordable prices, as we move to increasing dependence on imported energy. The remit of the Review was to examine 

the UK's progress against the medium and long-term 2003 Energy White Paper goals and consider options for further steps to achieve them. We remain committed to the UK's competitive energy market as the best way to deliver secure energy supplies and competitive prices. Our aim is to set the right regulatory framework to enable the market to move in the right direction to meet the long-term challenges. 

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Solar ultraviolet radiation: Global burden of disease from solar ultraviolet radiation
World Health Organization, 2006, 258 p.

Human exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation has important public health implications. Evidence of harm associated with overexposure to UV has been demonstrated in many studies. Skin cancer and malignant melanoma are among the most severe health effects, but a series of other health effects have been identified. The current report provides a quantification of the global disease burden

associated with UV. The information presented forms a knowledge base for the prevention of adverse effects of UV exposure that is achievable with known and accessible interventions. UV prevention focuses on protecting the skin and other organs from UV radiation. On the other hand, a moderate degree of UV exposure is necessary for the production of Vitamin D which is essential for bone health. Additionally, evidence emerges that low Vitamin D levels are likely to be associated with other chronic diseases. Thus, public health policy on ultraviolet radiation needs to aim at preventing the disease burden associated both with excessive and with insufficient UV exposure.

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Uranium 2005 - Resources, Production and Demand  
OECD, International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), 2 June 2006, 388 p.

Published every other year, Uranium Resources, Production, and Demand, or the “Red Book” as it is commonly known, is jointly prepared by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency. It is the recognised world reference on uranium and is based on official information

received from 43 countries. This 21st edition presents the results of a thorough review of world uranium supplies and demand as of 1st January 2005 and provides a statistical profile of the world uranium industry in the areas of exploration, resource estimates, production and reactor-related requirements. It provides substantial new information from all major uranium production centres in Africa, Australia, Central Asia, Eastern Europe and North America. Projections of nuclear generating capacity and reactor-related uranium requirements through 2025 are provided as well as a discussion of long-term uranium supply and demand issues. This edition focuses on recent price and production increases that could signal major changes in the industry.

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