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Coordinación y edición - CNEN/CIN (Brasil) con la colaboración de los países de la RRIAN - Colaborador especial - Máximo Rudelli (Argentina)

Año 3 - Nº 28 - Noviembre 2008
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Evaluation of the Status of National Nuclear Infrastructure Development 
IAEA Nuclear Energy Series, 2008, 55 p.

An appropriate infrastructure is essential for the safe, reliable and peaceful use of nuclear power. The IAEA was encouraged
to assess ways to meet infrastructure needs and to provide guidance to Member States considering the introduction of nuclear power. All of these countries face the challenge of building the necessary nuclear infrastructure for the first nuclear power plant. The IAEA is responding to this demand through increased technical assistance, missions and workshops, and with new and updated technical publications.

A holistic view of the infrastructure for nuclear power was published in Considerations to Launch a Nuclear Power Programme (GOV/INF/2007), targeted mainly at policy makers. Milestones in the Development of a National Infrastructure for Nuclear Power, an IAEA Nuclear Energy Series publication (No. NG-G-3.1)
issued in 2007, provided more detailed guidance on the three phases of development outlined in Considerations to Launch a Nuclear Power Programme. It describes the sequential development through the three phases for each of 19 infrastructure issues, ranging from a government’s national position on nuclear power to the procurement of items and services for the first nuclear power plant.
Member States requested additional guidance on determining how to assess the progress of their infrastructure development for nuclear power programmes. This report was prepared in response to their request. It provides an evaluation approach for the status of national nuclear infrastructure development based upon the guidance presented in the Milestones publication mentioned above.
The evaluation approach provides a comprehensive means to determine the status of the infrastructure conditions covering all of the 19 issues identified in the Milestones publication. This approach can be used by any interested Member State for self-evaluation in order to establish what additional work needs to be completed to develop the appropriate national infrastructure. In addition, the approach can be used for the implementation of external evaluations (international peer review) with the participation of the IAEA and independent external experts. Such reviews, where
a Member State wishes to invite others to carry out an evaluation, will help determine the degree of progress in developing and implementing national nuclear infrastructure areas for which IAEA assistance is requested.

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Committe on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) Collective Statement on Support Facilities for Existing and Advanced Reactors
Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA), 28 May 2008, 16 p.

The NEA Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) has recently completed a study on the availability and utilisation of facilities supporting safety studies for current and advanced nuclear power reactors. The study showed that significant steps had been undertaken in the past several years in support of safety test facilities, mainly by conducting multinational joint projects centered on the capability of unique test facilities worldwide.

Given the positive experience of the safety research projects, it has been recommended that efforts be made to prioritise technical issues associated with advanced (Generation IV) reactor designs and to develop options on how to efficiently obtain the necessary data through internationally co-ordinated research, preparing a gradual extension of safety research beyond the needs set by currently operating reactors.

This statement constitutes a reference for future CSNI activities and for safety authorities, R&D centres and industry for internationally co-ordinated research initiatives in the nuclear safety research area.

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Draft Global Nuclear Energy Partnership Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement
U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy, October 2008, 960 p.

The proposed Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) Program, which is part of the
President’s Advanced Energy Initiative, is intended to support a safe, secure, and sustainable expansion of nuclear energy, both domestically and internationally. Domestically, the GNEP Program would promote technologies that support economic, sustained production of nuclear-generated electricity, while .

Extraído de: http://www.gnep.gov/peis/Draft_PEIS/GNEP_PEIS.pd

Economic, Employment and Environmental Benefits of Renewed U.S. Investment in Nuclear Energy - National and State Analysis
Oxford Economics, 2008, 62 p.

A substantial program of new investment in nuclear energy infrastructure will generate up to 350,000 new jobs and almost $45bn in value-added. In this study, we assess the economic benefits of a reinvestment program for the nuclear energy industry. This program would involve two overlapping phases of work: The investment phase – the construction and manufacture of a new fleet of nuclear reactors, nuclear recycling plants and enrichment plants;

The operation phase - when the reactors and the recycling plants start generating
electricity. The economic benefits of the investment program have three components (as shown in the charts below): Direct employment and value added – how many people are employed in the construction, manufacturing and operation of the new nuclear energy industry as a result of the reinvestment program, and how much value added do they create? Indirect employment and value added – how many jobs and how much value added are supported down the supply chain to the nuclear energy industry, in each of the three phases of the project? Induced employment and value added – how much do the direct and indirect employees of the nuclear energy industry spend in the US economy, and how many jobs and how much value added is supported by that spending? Associated wage and tax benefits have also been calculated for all stages, while expected.

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Regulating the Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities - Relevant Issues and Emerging Practices
Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA), 25 September 2008, 84 p.

The removal of fuel from a permanently shutdown nuclear facility eliminates the major source of radiological hazard, a nuclear criticality. Combined with the cessation of operations at high temperatures and pressures, the risk to public health and to the environment is thereby very significantly reduced. The process of decommissioning does however necessitate processes involving both conventional and radiological hazards such as the

cutting and dismantling of structures, plant and equipment and the use of explosive cutting techniques. Some radiological hazards remain because of the possibility of coming into contact with radioactively contaminated or activated material.

This report considers how regulatory arrangements are being adapted to the continuously changing environment, and associated risk levels in a nuclear facility that is being decommissioned. It uses examples of current practices in several countries with large decommissioning programmes to illustrate emerging regulatory trends.

Extraído de:  http://www.nea.fr/html/pub/ret.cgi?id=new#6401

Safe Long Term Operation of Nuclear Power Plants 
IAEA Safety Reports Series, 2008, 33 p.

Nuclear power plants (NPPs) are increasingly operating for longer time frames than were originally anticipated at their launch. Out of the total number of NPPs operating in the world, approximately 20% have been in operation for more than 30 years, and about 50% for more than 20 years. This publication fulfils, in part, the urgent needs expressed by Member States for information resources to aid the development of national programmes for safe long term operation of NPPs. The publication focuses on the physical systems, structures and components of NPPs.

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Spent Fuel Reprocessing Options 
IAEA TECDOC Series, August 2008, 151 p.

Analysts predict a substantial global growth in the nuclear industry over the next century in response to environmental issues and concerns about the sustainability of the world’s electric energy supply. However, the projected growth of the nuclear industry and quantities of resultant spent fuel could cause stress to the current international non-proliferation regime. An increase in the quantity of material in the fuel cycle will challenge monitoring and security programmes. As a result, it is necessary to develop innovative means by which to close the nuclear fuel cycle. This publication provides an update on the latest developments in nuclear reprocessing technologies in light of new developments on the global nuclear scene.

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Technetium-99m Radiopharmaceuticals: Manufacture of Kits 
IAEA Technical Reports Series, 2008, 189 p.

This report describes the procedures for preparing 23 selected Tc-99m radiopharmaceutical kits. Details of the preparation of ten of the active ingredients are also included. The procedures described here can be used to develop manuals, monographs and standard operating procedures. This report is expected to serve as a guide to radiopharmaceutical manufacturing centres and centralized pharmacies involved in the production of kits. It will be a useful resource for the many hospital radiopharmacies that routinely use the kits to compound Tc-99m radiopharmaceuticals, and a source of information for regulators of radiopharmaceuticals.

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Safety Analysis for Research Reactors  
IAEA Safety Reports Series, 2008, 91 p.

This publication provides practical guidance for performing safety analyses of research reactors. The guidance is based on present good practice worldwide. It covers all the steps required to perform safety analyses, i.e. selection of initiating events and acceptance criteria, rules and conventions, selection of computational tools, and presentation and evaluation of the analysis results. This safety report also discusses various factors that need to be considered to ensure that the safety analysis is of an acceptable quality. It may be applied in varying

degrees to all research reactors. The use of calculations and methods such as those included in this safety report may be applied, as deemed necessary, for preparation of the safety analysis of newly designed research reactors, modifications and upgrades of existing reactors, and new experiments with an impact on safety; it may be also used for updating or reassessing previous safety analyses of operating research reactors.

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